In Experiment 2, the Orbscan power at mm was selected for IOL In particular, when using manual keratometry to measure the corneal power at the mm. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" The Orbscan is a slit-scanning device and the Pentacam is Scheimpflug imaging device. we see these advanced topographers next to simple manual keratometers that Orbscan generates elevation data of the anterior and posterior corneal. The s brought to ophthalmology small incision cataract surgery with its numerous benefits, namely less surgical trauma to the eye with rapid wound healing.

Orbscan Manual Ebook

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Examples of elevation devices are the Orbscan. (Bausch & Lomb) . automatically; however, some topographers require manual measurement of HVID. This. After a detailed evaluation by the ophthalmologist and specialised tests including an orbscan and retina evaluation, we can decide whether lasik is suitable for. Manual keratometry is the oldest method used to measure the corneal curvature. IOL power calculation, the Pentacam unit has been programmed to calculate.

Print the data from the desktop. Open in a separate window Operative Procedure Preoperatively all patients were provided informed consent regarding surgery and data collection for this study.

Treatments were performed without wave-front guided, customized ablations. All eyes healed quickly and without complications. Data Collection The preoperative and postoperative refractions were measured using a phoropter set for mm vertex distance.

The refractive errors were then vertex-adjusted to the corneal plane, aided by the computer program on the VISX S4 Laser.

The spherical equivalent of this vertex-adjusted refraction was calculated in standard fashion by adding one half of the cylinder to the sphere. The refractive correction induced by the LASIK procedure was calculated by subtracting the vertex-adjusted, spherical equivalent refraction measured postoperatively from that measured preoperatively.

The keratometric values of the preoperative and postoperative Orbscan II power maps were compared at each paracentral zone. The Orbscan II-measured corneal power change, which resulted from the LASIK procedure, was calculated by subtracting the postoperative keratometric value from the preoperative value at each paracentral zone, namely, 1.

This was measured by subtracting the refractive correction from the Orbscan II keratometric change at each zone of measurement. For purposes of analysis and discussion, the difference is termed Orbscan II correlation factor. The mean Orbscan correlation factor was then calculated at each paracentral zone for all eyes studied.

A perfect Orbscan correlation factor value for this study is zero and indicates that the change in the Orbscan II calculated mean power map at a given zone equals the refractive change induced by the LASIK procedure. The mean Orbscan correlation factor was compared among the paracentral zones 1. All patients had previously undergone myopic LASIK, were stable from the refractive surgery, and were free of other ocular disease. All patients who fit these inclusion criteria are reported in this consecutive series.

Preoperative Evaluation

The sample size for this experiment is limited to all available patients during this time interval that fit the inclusion criteria. Signed informed consents were obtained from all patients. Prior to cataract surgery, each eye was measured for the IOL power necessary to achieve emmetropia postoperatively. The Orbscan II was used to measure the mean power maps of the cornea at the 1.

Counselling in Cornea Clinic

Four of the 13 patients contributed two eyes to the study. In these bilateral cases, each eye was measured separately. IOL power calculations and lens selection for the second eye were made independent of the results obtained in the first eye.

This was done to minimize the use of interdependent data that might bias the outcomes. Two popular examples of such topography systems are the Orbscan Bausch and Lomb Inc. In the current article we review the use of the Orbscan and Pentacam in the field of refractive surgery.

At that time, Orbscan was the only commercially available machine that could measure surface elevation of the cornea.

Lasik – procedure

In the later version, namely the Orbscan II, the Placido disc technique was incorporated to enable direct measurement of corneal curvature. Some of the most important variables that are measured indirectly include the corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth.

During data acquisition, 20 slits are projected onto the cornea from each side for a total of 40 slits. This is done in a scanning fashion at an angle of 45 degrees, and the backscattered light is captured by a digital video camera.

Data from points are extracted from each slit, and processed by the software to calculate different variables. In Figure 1 , the four maps, clockwise, from the top left include the anterior elevation, posterior elevation, pachymetry, and axial power.

The information in the middle gray box, from top, includes patient name and ID, the exam date, and simulated keratometry readings. The irregularity index value and power data of the 3.

It also measures the crystalline lens thickness Figure 3. Multiple studies have shown that very accurate and reproducible measurements are obtained by optical biometry and immersion ultrasound biometry. Contact ultrasound biometry is not advised in these cases.

This is especially true in very long eyes that might harbor a posterior pole staphyloma. Keratometry Corneal power is the second most important factor affecting IOL power calculations after the axial length.

A keratometric error of 1 diopter D affects the postoperative refraction by approximately the same amount. The keratometer measures the anterior radius of corneal curvature, expressed in millimeters. This is translated into diopters by considering the entire corneal power to be at the anterior corneal surface.


Most manual keratometers take 2 readings at the steepest meridian and 2 readings at the flattest meridian. Automated keratometry has gained in popularity in the past 2 decades. Most auto-keratometers are stand-alone units or combined with an auto-refractor.

They provide the K readings from the central 3 mm of the cornea in the steepest and flattest meridians.Pre-death counselling Enquiring doctors and nurses about the patients condition in the particular ICU. Follow up After one month follow up from the date of surgery After one year follow up from the date of surgery.

To identify the deserving persons, who seek advanced technology for treatment by social marketing. This F-OSDI could be used for assessment of dry eye, ocular surface discomfort and quality of life in Iranian and Farsi speaking populations.

A thin layer of the cornea of uniform thickness is created using a special device called microkeratome. First you have to discontinue your contact lens atleast for 2 weeks.

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